The currency in the most narrow sense is money in any form when you use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more General definition is that the monetary system of money in common use, especially for people in the country. According to this definition, US dollar, Euro, Japanese yen, pounds sterling examples of currencies. These different currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between Nations in foreign exchange markets, which determines the relative values of different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin and money. The last definition concerning the monetary systems of the States, is the subject of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: Fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the value of the currency from the economy and governments physical metal reserves. Some currencies are legal tender in certain jurisdictions political. Others are simply traded for their economic value. Digital currency arose with the popularity of computers and the Internet.
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction of buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
The city is a large settlements. It can be defined as a permanent and densely settled place with administratively defined borders, whose members work mainly on non-agricultural tasks. Cities usually have an extensive system of housing, transport, health, utilities, land use and communications. Their density facilitates the interaction between people, public organizations and enterprises, sometimes in the interests of the different parties in the process such as improving the efficiency of distribution of goods and services. This concentration could also have significant negative consequences, such as the formation of urban heat Islands, concentrations, and stressing, water and other resources. Historically, citizens were a small part of humanity in General, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, about half of the worlds population now lives in cities, which had serious implications for global sustainability. Modern cities usually form the core of major Metropolitan areas and cities - the creation of numerous cars coming in the direction of the centre for employment, entertainment and edification. However, in a world of increasing globalization, all cities are in varying degrees also connected globally outside of these areas. This means that the growing influence of cities significantly affects global problems such as sustainable development, global warming and global health. World powers have several well-known cities, US cities, including new York city and Los Angeles and other major cities, such as Chicago, Houston and Philadelphia. While in the cities in China are among the most densely populated, such as the city is Chongqing and Shanghai. In the most densely populated urban areas of greater Tokyo and Jakarta. Other important features of the cities, but the population also includes the status of capital and a relative continuation of the occupation of the city. For example, countries, capitals such as Abu Dhabi, Beijing, Berlin, Cairo, Dubai, London, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Seoul, Tokyo and Washington to reflect their identity Nations. In some capitals such as Kyoto, to support their reflection of cultural identity even without modern Metropolitan status. Religious shrines to offer another example of capital status in religion, Jerusalem, Mecca, and Varanasi have a value. The cities of Faiyum, Damascus, and Argos were among those who claims to be the longest permanent residence. From the point of view of the relative age of the ancient cities in South America near Cholula-Puebla, Flores, Peten and in Acoma near Albuquerque, while the ancient capitals in America, Mexico, Santo Domingo and San Juan. Another example concerning age, the age of the oldest cities in the capital of a superpower and the emerging superpower, they are the us state capital of Santa Fe, new Mexico, and in the Chinese Prefecture of the capital, XIan, Shaanxi.
Language is a structured system of communication. Language, in the broadest sense, is a way of communication that involves the use of human language. The scientific study of language is called Linguistics. Questions of philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, has been discussed at least since Gorgias and Plato in Ancient Greece. Thinkers like Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant believed that it originated from a rational and logical thinking. 20th century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics-Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5.000 and 7.000. However, any precise estimate depends on an arbitrary dichotomy, the distinction between language and dialect. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual or tactile stimuli – for example, writing, whistling, signing, or using Braille. This is because human language is modality-independent. Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a General concept, "language" may refer to a cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that make up these systems, or a set of statements that can be derived from these rules. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs special meaning. Oral, manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that determines how characters are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that determines how words and morphemes are combined into phrases and sayings. Human language has the properties of productivity and displacement, and relies entirely on social Convention and learning. Its complex structure provides a much wider range of emotions than any known system of animal communication. Language, believed to have originated when early prehistoric humans began to gradually changing their communication systems of primates, acquiring the ability to form theories of other minds and shared intentionality. This development is sometimes thought to have coincided with the increase in brain volume, and many linguists see the structures of language as evolved to serve specific communicative and social functions. Language is processed in different places in the human brain, but especially in brocas and Wernickes areas. People acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently about three years. The use of language is deeply rooted in human culture. Therefore, in addition to the actual communicative purposes, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification and for social grooming and entertainment. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their development can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have in order for later stages of development to occur. In the group of languages that descend from a common ancestor, is called a language family. The Indo-European family is the most common and includes languages as diverse as English, Russian and Hindi-the Sino-Tibetan family includes Mandarin and other Chinese languages, Bodo and Tibetan, Afro-Asiatic family includes Arabic, Somali, and Hebrew, Bantu languages, including Swahili and Zulu, and hundreds of other languages spoken in Africa, and the Malay-Polynesian languages Indonesian, Malay, Tagalog, and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout the Pacific region. In the languages of the Dravidian family spoken mainly in southern India include Tamil, Telugu and Kannada. Academic consensus holds that between 50% and 90% of languages spoken in the early 21st century will probably be extinct by the year 2100.
The writing system is a way for visual representation of verbal communication. While writing and speaking are helpful when sending messages, writing is also a reliable form of communication and storage of information. The system does require mutual understanding between writers and readers make sense for the character sets that make up the scenario. Writing usually recorded on a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as recording on computer monitor, on the Board in the sand or in the sky. The reading of the text can be accomplished solely in the mind as an internal process, or orally. Writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabet, syllabary, or logo graphie, although any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, a standard set of letters represent the sounds of speech. In a syllabary, each symbol means the syllable or Mora. In a logography, each character represents a semantic unit such as a word or morpheme. Abjads differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries each symbol represents a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets typically use a set of at least 100 characters to fully Express a language, whereas syllabaries can be a few hundred, and logo graphie can have thousands of characters. A writing system will also include a special set of symbols known as punctuation, which is used for interpretation and to help capture nuances and variations in the meaning of the message, orally transmitted signals in timing, tone, accent, intonation or tone. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms, ideograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and Express the full range of thoughts and ideas. The invention of writing systems, which dates back to the early bronze age in the late Neolithic era of the late 4th Millennium BCE, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in such a way that is not subject to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Shortly after writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the means for the earliest forms of mass communication.
Tourism is travel for fun or business, as well as the theory and practice of tourism, business, attraction, accommodation and entertainment of tourists, and service rounds. The world tourism organization definition of tourism in General, in terms that go "beyond the common understanding of tourism as active recreation only", and people "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one year for the purpose of recreation and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic In the city, the country or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on the countrys balance of payments. Travel figures declined as a result of severe economic downturn in the late 2000s, years of recession in the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the outbreak of influenza H1N1 2009, but slowly recovered. Worldwide, revenues from international tourism trip in the balance of payments increased to us$1.03 trillion €740 billion in 2005, representing an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. The number of international tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone 1 billion tourists in the world for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China, Russia and Brazil significantly increased their spending over the previous decade. At the exhibition ITB Berlin is the leading trade fair of tourism. Global tourism accounts for si. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. The journey can be done on foot, Bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship and other means, with or without Luggage, and can be one-way or round-trip. Travel can also include relatively short period of time between successive movements, as in the case of tourism.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The origin of the word "travel" is likely lost to history. The term "travel" may originate from the old French word travail, which means work. According to Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in 14th century. He also States that the word comes from middle English travailen, travelen and earlier from old French "terminological dictionary which means to work strenuously, work hard. In English we still occasionally use the words "exploit" what it means to fight. According to Simon Winchester in his book the Best travelers tales, 2004, the words "travel" and "exploit" both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium in Latin it means "three stakes", as to chop. This relationship may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. A journey in modern times may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination. During the journey to Everest, the Amazon rainforest, extreme tourism and adventure tourism more complex forms of movement. Travel can also be more complex depending on the method of travel, e.g., bus, cruise ship, or even on the cart.
2. The purpose and motivation. (Цель и мотивация)
Reasons for traveling recreation, tourism or vacation, research trips, gathering information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade, transportation, and other causes, for example, to receive medical care, or is in or fleeing war for the enjoyment of travel. Travelers can use human-powered transportation such as walking or Cycling, or vehicles such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.
Motives to travel include:
- Intercultural communication. (Межкультурная коммуникация)
- Of discovery and exploration.
- Relaxation. (Релаксация)
- Taking personal time for building interpersonal relationships.
- Fun. (Удовольствие)
3. The history of travel. (История путешествий)
Dates back to ancient times, when wealthy Greeks and Romans would go on holiday in their summer houses and villas in cities like Pompeii and baiae. While in the beginning, as a rule, slower, more dangerous and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technical progress for many years generally means that travel has become easier and more affordable. Humanity has come a long way in transport since Christopher Columbus sailed to the New world from Spain in 1492 expedition, which took over 10 weeks to arrive at its final destination, in the 21st century where planes allow you to travel from Spain to the US overnight.
Travel in the middle Ages suggested difficulties and problems, however, it is important for the economy and society. In the wholesale segment is dependent for example on the merchants dealing / via caravans or sea-travellers, end users, retailers often demand services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to village, gyrovagues, wandering monks and friars brought theology and pastoral support for neglected areas of travelling minstrels practiced endless tour, and the army went in various Crusades and various other wars. Pilgrimages were common in the European and the Islamic world is involved and the flows of passengers in local Canterbury tales-style, and at the international level.
In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel in large European cities as part of their education in the field of art and literature. It was a so-called Grand tour, it included such cities as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome. However, the French revolution brought an end to a Great tour.
The travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than the Earth is to travel, at least until the advent of railroads in the 19th century. Travel for tourism is reported to have begun about this time when people began to travel for pleasure, as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. It was capitalized on people like Thomas cook sells travel packages, where the trains and hotels were booked together. Airships and planes took over a large part of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, especially after world war II, where there was more of both aircraft and pilots.
4. Geographical types. (Географические типы)
Travel may be local, regional, national, domestic or international. In some countries local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. The trip can also be part of the "round-trip", which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one place to another and back.
5. Travel safety. (Путешествия безопасности)
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety. When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and trouble-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence. Some security best practices include being aware of ones surroundings, avoiding being the object of the crime, leaving copies of those passports and route data with trusted people, obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited and registering with the national Embassy when arriving in a foreign country. Many countries do not recognize a drivers license from other countries however most countries accept international driving license. Automobile insurance policies issued in their own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the visited country. Preferably also oriented with the driving-rules and regulations of the destination country. Wearing a seat belt is strongly recommended for security reasons, in many countries the penalties for violation of the laws of seat belts.
There are three main statistics which can be used to compare the security of different types of tourism based on a survey of MOST in October 2000:
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