The nature of Paul Kelly album. Nature journal, a multidisciplinary academic journal published since 1869. The nature of the group, K-pop girl group. Series nature TV, a television program that aired on PBS since 1982. Nature essay Tobler, essays of Georg Christoph Tobler. The journal Nature, the journal is published by the American Association of nature from 1923 to 1959. "Nature" essay, an essay and a collection of essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. La nature, a French magazine aimed at the popularization of science established in 1873. Program the Nature of radio, programme Radio bi-Bi-si 4. Nature the mutton birds album. "Nature" "song", a 1969 single by New Zealand band Fourmyula.
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that form biological animal Kingdom. With some exceptions, animals consume organic matter, oxygen to breathe, unable to move, unable to reproduce sexually and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula during embryonic development. More than 1.5 million living species of animals have been described, of which about 1 million insects - but it is estimated there are over 7 million species of animals in General. Animals range in length from 8.5 million units up to 33.6 meters. They have complex interactions with each other and their environment, forming a complex food web. The animal Kingdom includes humans, but in colloquial use, the term often applies only to non-human animals. The science of animals is called Zoology. Most of the living animals in the Bilateria, a clade, the members of which have bilaterally symmetric body plan. Include in Bilateria protostomes, in which many groups of invertebrates, such as nematodes, arthropods, molluscs and deuterostomes containing both echinoderms and chordates, containing the vertebrates. Life forms is interpreted as before was animals in the ediacaran biota in the late Precambrian. Many modern types of animals was clearly established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion that began about 542 million years ago. 6.331 groups of genes that are common to all living organisms identified, it may have originated from a common ancestor that lived 650 million years ago. Historically, Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 in his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 types by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal world into multicellular synonyms for animals and protists, single-celled organisms are no longer considered animals. In the modern era of biological classification of animals is based on advanced techniques such as molecular phylogenetics, which effectively demonstrate the evolutionary relationships between taxa of animals. People make use of many other animal species, for example, for food, for materials such as leather and wool, and as Pets, and for transportation, as work animals. Dogs are used in hunting, although many terrestrial and aquatic animals hunted for sport. Non-human animals have appeared in art since ancient times and appears in mythology and religion.
Geology and λoγία, box) is the science of the Earth are associated with the solid earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planets or natural satellites, such as Mars or the Moon. Modern Geology is significantly stronger than all other of earth science, including the hydrological and atmospheric Sciences, and is therefore seen as one of the important aspects of the complex system earth science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth and beneath its surface, and the processes that formed this structure. It also provides tools for determining relative and absolute age of rocks found in a given place, and also to describe the history of these rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able chronicle of the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides primary evidence for plate tectonics, evolutionary history of life and earths climate in the past. Geologists use various methods to understand the structure of the Earth and evolution, including field work, description of rocks, geophysical technology, chemical analysis, physical experiment and numerical simulation. From a practical point of view of Geology is important for mineral and exploration and production of hydrocarbons, evaluation of water resources, understanding of natural phenomena, the recovery of environmental issues and performance in the past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, and it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering.
Botany, also called the science of plants, biology of plants or fetology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. Botanist phytologist or scientist who specializiruetsya in this area. The term "botany" comes from the Greek word βοτάνη means "pasture", "grass", or "fodder", βοτάνη in turn derived from βόσκειν, "feed" or "graze." Traditionally, botany also included the study of algae and fungi to mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the international Botanical Congress. Currently, botanists study approximately 410.000 kinds of plants, some of which 391.000 species of vascular plants and bryophytes are about 20.000. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of primitive man to identify, and then cultivate edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physics gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance. They were the first of the first Botanical gardens at universities, founded with the 1540-ies. One of the first Botanical garden of Padova. These gardens contribute to the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, and led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, of plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists use methods of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, interdisciplinary topic involving most other fields of science and technology. Research topics include the study of the structure of plants, their growth and differentiation, reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products, development, diseases, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and taxonomy of plants. Dominant themes in the science of the 21st century the plant are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression in the process of differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing food, materials such as timber, oil, rubber, fiber, and drugs, in modern horticulture, agriculture and forestry, plant propagation, breeding and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, and biodiversity conservation.
Terrain or topography includes the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the earths surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe the underwater topography, while exploring hypsometry location relative to sea level. The Latin word "Terra" means "earth". In physical geography, terrain is terrain. It is usually expressed in terms of height, tilt and orientation on the terrain. Terrain affects surface water flow and water distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate.
Water is inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical which is the main component of the hydrosphere of the Earth and the fluids of living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, which means that one molecule contains one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of liquid H2O at standard temperature and pressure of the environment. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice can precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water constantly passes through the water cycle, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earths surface, mostly in the seas and oceans. Small portions of water occurs as groundwater is 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenlands 1.7%, and in the air as vapor, clouds are formed of ice and of liquid water suspended in the air, and precipitation 0.001%. Water plays an important role in the global economy. About 70% of fresh water used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water is the main source of food for many parts of the world. A lot of long distance trade goods, such as oil and natural gas and manufactured products are transported by boat across seas, rivers, lakes and canals. A large amount of water, ice and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and at home. Water is an excellent solvent for various substances such as mineral and organic, as such, it is widely used in industrial processes and in cooking and washing. Water, ice and snow is also vital for many sports and other activities such as swimming, pleasure boats, racing boats, surfing, sport fishing, diving, skating and skiing.
The continent is one of several very large landmasses. As a rule, identifitseerida Convention rather than any strict criteria with up to seven regions commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Geologically, the continents generally correspond to areas of continental crust that are on continental plates. However, some sections of the continental crust regions covered with water, as a rule, is not included in the list of continents. Zealandia is one of those areas, to see the flooded continents below. This type of sushi is only known to exist on Earth. Islands are often grouped with the neighbouring continent, to share all the worlds of the Earth in geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the island countries and territories in the Pacific ocean are grouped together with the continent of Australia to form a geopolitical region of Oceania.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" refers to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in General. The study of nature is great, if not the only part of science. Although man is part of nature, human activities often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena.
The word nature is derived from the Latin word Natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth". In ancient philosophy, nature is mainly used as the Latin translation of the Greek word physis φύσις, which originally is due to characteristics that plants, animals and other features of the world develop of their own accord. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical Universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion, it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, although the word had a dynamic measurement, particularly for Heraclitus, and gradually spread since then. During the advent of modern scientific method in the last few centuries, nature has been a passive reality, organized and driven by the divine laws. With the beginning of the industrial revolution, nature increasingly came to be regarded as part of reality devoid of intentional intervention: he was, therefore, considered sacred, some of the traditions of Rousseau, American transcendentalism, or just the decency of divine Providence and human history, Hegel, Marx. However, vetlitskaja vision of the nature, closer to the presocratic one, reborn at the same time, especially after Charles Darwin.
In various uses of the word today, nature often refers to Geology and wildlife. Nature may refer to the area of General plant life and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects - so that particular types of things exist and change on their own, such as weather and Geology of Earth. This often means "natural environment" or wilderness wild animals, rocks, forest and in General those things that have not been significantly modified by human intervention, or despite human intervention. For example, industrial objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature unless qualified as for example "human nature" or "all nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between natural and artificial, with artificial to understand as what was given in Genesis of human consciousness or the human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or supernatural.
1. Earth. (Земля)
The earth is the only planet known to support life, and its natural features are the subject of many fields of scientific research. Within the Solar system it is third closest to the Sun, is the largest terrestrial planet and the fifth largest overall. His best-known climatic features of the two large polar regions, two relatively narrow temperate zones and a single wide Equatorial tropical and subtropical regions. Precipitation varies widely depending on location, from a few meters per year to less than one millimeter. 71% of the Earths surface is covered by salt water oceans. The remainder consists of continents and Islands, with most of the inhabited land in the Northern hemisphere.
Earth has evolved through geological and biological processes that have left traces of initial conditions. The outer surface is divided into several gradually migrating tectonic plates. The interior remains active, with a thick layer of plastic mantle and an iron core that generates a magnetic field. Its iron core consists of a solid inner phase and outer phase of the fluid. Convective motion in the core generate electric currents in a Dynamo, and this, in turn, generate the geomagnetic field.
The atmospheric conditions have been significantly altered from the original condition is the existence of life forms, which create an ecological balance that stabilizes the surface conditions. Despite significant regional differences in climate by latitude and other geographic factors, the long-term average global climate is quite stable during interglacial periods, and variations of a degree or two of average global temperature have historically had major impact on the ecological balance and the actual geography of the Earth.
1.1. Earth. Geology. (Геология)
Geology is the science and study of solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of Geology encompasses study composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics and history of earth materials and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. Field is a major academic discipline and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some geotechnical engineering fields, and understanding past climatic and environmental conditions.
1.2. Earth. Geological evolution. (Геологическая эволюция)
The Geology of the area changes in time as rocks are deposited and inserted and deformational processes change their shapes and location.
Breed the first mines, or by deposition on the surface or to penetrate the overlying rocks. Deposition can occur when sediments are deposited on the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when volcanic materials such as volcanic ash and lava flows, blanket the surface. Igneous intrusion such as a batholith, laccoliths, dikes, and Sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and kristallizuetsya as they invade.
After the initial sequence of rocks was deposited, rocks can be deformed and / or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side shear movement. These structural regimes in General relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates.
1.3. Earth. Historical perspective. (Историческая перспектива)
Earth estimated to have formed 4.54 billion years ago from the solar nebula, along with the Sun and the other planets. The moon formed roughly 20 million years later. Initially molten the outer layer of the earth cooled, resulting in the solid crust. Degassing and volcanic activity produced in the primary atmosphere. Condensing water vapor, most or all of which came from ice delivered by comets, produced the oceans and other water sources. Highly energetic chemistry is believed to have created self-replicating molecules about 4 billion years ago.
Continents formed, then broke up and reformed as the Earths surface is changed for hundreds of millions of years, occasionally combining to make a supercontinent. About 750 million years ago the earliest known supercontinent Rodinia, began to break. Later, the continents will merge to form Pannotia which broke apart about 540 million years ago, then finally Pangaea, which broke apart 180 million years ago.
In the age of the Neoproterozoic, frost covered most of the land in glaciers and ice sheets. This hypothesis is called "Earth-snowball" and is of particular interest as it precedes the Cambrian explosion, which started multicellular life forms to proliferate about 530-540 million years ago.
After the Cambrian explosion were five clearly identifiable mass extinctions. The last mass extinction occurred about 66 million years ago, when a meteorite collision probably triggered the extinction, not of dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but spared small animals such as mammals. Over the last 66 million years, to diversify the life of mammals.
Several million years ago a species of small African APE gained the ability to stand on his feet. The subsequent advent of human life, and the development of agriculture and further civilization allowed humans to affect the earth faster than any previous life form affecting both the nature and quantity of other organisms as well as global climate. By comparison, the great oxygenation event, produced by the proliferation of algae in the Siderian period, required about 300 million years, will end.
Now classified as part of a mass extinction event, the Holocene extinction event, the fastest ever took place. Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that human destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of half of all species in the next 100 years. The magnitude of the current extinction event is still being studied, debated and calculated by biologists.
2. Atmosphere, climate and weather. (Атмосфера, климат и погода)
The Earths atmosphere is a key factor in maintaining ecosystems. A thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth, is held under the action of gravity. Air, mostly nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, with much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, argon, etc., the atmospheric pressure decreases steadily with altitude. The ozone layer plays an important role in the layer the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is easily destroyed by UV light, this serves to protect life on the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes.
Terrestrial weather occurs almost exclusively in the lower part of the atmosphere, and serves as a convective system for redistributing heat. Ocean currents are another important factor in determining climate, particularly the major underwater thermohaline circulation which distributes heat energy from the Equatorial oceans to the polar regions. These flows help to mitigate the differences in temperature between winter and summer in the temperate zone. Furthermore, without the redistribution of thermal energy via ocean currents and atmosphere, the tropics would be much hotter and the polar regions much colder.
Weather can have both beneficial and harmful effects. Extreme weather events such as tornadoes or hurricanes and cyclones, can waste large amounts of energy along their paths, and produce devastation. Surface vegetation has evolved a dependence on seasonal weather changes, and drastic changes in just a few years can have a dramatic impact on both the vegetation and the animals which depend on its growth for their food.
Climate measure long-term trends in the weather. Various factors known to affect climate, including ocean currents, surface albedo, greenhouse gases, changes in solar luminosity and the Earths orbit changes. Based on historical records, the Land is known to have undergone drastic climate change, including ice ages.
The climate of the region depends on several factors, especially latitude. A Latitudinal band of the surface with similar climatic attributes forms a climate region. There are several such regions, ranging from tropical climate on the equator to the polar climate in the Northern and southern extremes. Weather is also affected by the seasons, which result from earths axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane. Thus, at any point in time during the summer or winter, one part of the Earth is more directly exposed to the rays of the sun. This exposure alternates as the Earth revolves in its orbit. At any time, regardless of the season, the Northern and southern hemispheres experience opposite seasons.
Weather is a chaotic system that can be easily remedied by making small changes in the environment, so accurate weather forecasting is limited to only a few days. In General, two things happen in the world: 1, the temperature increases by the middle and 2 at the regional climate is undergoing significant changes.
3. Water on Earth. (Вода на Земле)
Water is a chemical substance composed of hydrogen and oxygen and H2O is vital for all known forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice and gaseous state, water vapor, or steam. Water covers 71% of earths surface. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation. The oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and the polar ice caps 2.4%, and other surface water land: rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. In addition, a small amount of earths water is contained in biological bodies and manufactured products.
3.1. Water on Earth. Oceans. (Океаны)
The ocean is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the earth surface area of about 361 million square kilometers is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is traditionally divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is more than 3.000 meters depth of 9.800 feet. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand PPT 3.5%, and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 PPT. Though generally recognized as several separate oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often called the world ocean and the world ocean. This concept of the oceans as a permanent body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to Oceanography.
The major oceanic divisions are defined in part of the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions in descending order of the size of the Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean, Indian ocean, southern ocean and Arctic ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also salt lakes, which have a smaller body of sea which has no outlet to the sea that are not connected with the oceans. Two notable examples of salt lakes are the Aral sea and the Great Salt lake.
3.2. Water on Earth. Lake. (Озеро)
The lake from the Latin word lacus is an element of relief or physical function of the body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of the basin a different type of terrain and the element of relief, that is, it is not global and is moving slowly, if moving at all. On the Ground the pond is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond, and feeds the river. The only world other than Earth, are home to lakes of Titan, Saturns largest moon, which has lakes of ethane, most likely mixed with methane. It is not known if Titans lakes are fed the river, although the Titans the surface cut by numerous rivers. Natural lakes on Earth, usually found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the margins of Mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last ice age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the containing basins.
3.3. Water on Earth. Ponds. (Пруды)
The pond is standing water, either natural or man-made that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide selection of artificial water bodies are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic decoration, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams via current speed. While flows to flows easily observed ponds and lakes possess thermally driven micro-currents and moderate wind currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as pools and stream backwaters.
3.4. Water on Earth. River. (Река)
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing to the ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river. In some cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, Creek, brook, Creek and Rill, there is no General rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location one example is burn in Scotland and North East England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a Creek, but this is not always the case, because of vagueness in the language. The river is part of the hydrological cycle. The river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater, springs, and water stored in natural ice and snow cover, i.e. from glaciers.
3.5. Water on Earth. Threads. (Нити)
The flow of the flowing body of water over and within the bed and banks of the stream. In the United States, the flow is classified as a watercourse less than 60 feet 18 m wide. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments, groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. Biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of the stream is called the riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in the conservation of biological diversity. The study of streams and waterways in General involves many branches of interdisciplinary science and engineering, including hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, aquatic ecology, fish biology, coastal ecology, and others.
4. Ecosystem. (Экосистемы)
Ecosystems consist of biotic and abiotic components that function in their relationship. The structure and composition is determined by various environmental factors, which are interrelated. Variations of these factors will initiate dynamic changes in ecosystems. Some of the most important components are soil, atmosphere, solar radiation, water and living organisms.
Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environment. Eugene Odum, a founder of ecology, stated "any unit that includes all the organisms i.e.: the "community" in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity and material cycles ie: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts within the system is an ecosystem." Within the ecosystem, species are connected and dependent on each other in the food chain, and exchange energy and matter with each other and with their environment. Ecosystems the concept of man based on human nature dichotomy and the idea that all species are ecologically dependent on each other as well as with the abiotic constituents of their habitat.
A smaller unit of measurement called microecosystem. For example, a Microsystem can be a stone and all the life under it. In macroecosystem might involve a whole Ecoregion, with its drainage basin.
4.1. Ecosystem. The desert. (Пустыни)
Desert, generally defined as areas that have not been significantly altered by human activity. Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, estates, farms, protection of biological resources, ranches, national forests, national parks and even in urban areas along rivers, streams, or otherwise undeveloped areas. The wilderness areas and protected parks are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation, and loneliness. According to some authors, the nature is wild places are vital to the human spirit and creativity, and some environmentalists believe wildlife to be an integral part of Earths self-sustaining natural ecosystems of the biosphere. They may also preserve historic genetic traits and that they provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult or impossible to recreate in zoos, arboretums or laboratories.
5. Life. (Жизнь)
Although there is no universal agreement about the definition of life, scientists generally recognized that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli and reproduction. Life can also be said to be simply the characteristic state of the organism.
Properties common to terrestrial organisms is that they are cellular, carbon-and-water-based with complex organization, metabolism, ability to grow, respond to stimuli and reproduction. Object with these properties, usually considered to be life. However, not every definition of life considers all of these properties are important. Human analog life may also be considered life.
Biosphere-part of Earths outer shell-including Land, surface rocks, water, air and atmosphere - in which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. From the broadest geophysiological point of view, the Biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including interactions with elements of the lithosphere rocks, hydrosphere-water, and air. The entire Earth contains over 75 billion tons 150 trillion pounds or about 6.8×10 13 kilograms of biomass the life that lives in different environments in the biosphere.
Over nine-tenths of the total biomass on Earth is plant life, on which animal life depends very much on its existence. More than 2 million species of plants and animals have been identified to date, and estimates of the actual number of existing species range from several million to 50 million. The number of individual types of activities life is constantly in some degree of flux, with new species appearing and others ceasing to exist on a permanent basis. The total number of species in rapid decline.
5.1. Life. Evolution. (Эволюция)
The origin of life on Earth is not well understood, but it is known to have occurred at least 3.5 billion years ago, during Hadasha or Archean eons on a primordial earth that had a substantially different environment than at present. These life forms possessed the basic traits of reproduction and inheritance of characteristics. Once life arose, the process of evolution through natural selection led to the development of more diverse forms of life.
Species that are unable to adapt to environmental changes and competition from other forms of life extinct. However, the fossil record has preserved evidence of many of these older types. Current fossil and DNA shows that all existing species can trace a continuous lineage to the first primitive life forms.
When the main life forms of plants developed in the process of photosynthesis solar energy can be harvested to create conditions that allowed more complex life forms. The resulting oxygen accumulates in the atmosphere and gave rise to the ozone layer. The inclusion of small cells into larger led to the design of yet more complex cells called eukaryotes. Cells in the colonies became increasingly specialized, resulting in true multicellular organisms. With the ozone layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation, life colonized the surface of the Earth.
5.2. Life. Germs. (Микробы)
The first form of life on Earth were microorganisms, and they remained the only form of life until about a billion years ago when multicellular organisms began to appear. Microorganisms single-celled organisms, generally microscopic, and smaller than the human eye can see. They include bacteria, fungi, archaea, Protista I.
These life forms can be found in almost every place on Earth where there is liquid water, including in the Inner lands. Their reproduction is rapid and abundant. The combination of high mutation rate and horizontal gene transfer ability makes them very adaptable and able to survive in the new environment, including outer space. They form an essential part of a planetary ecosystem. However, some microorganisms are pathogenic and can risk the health of other organisms.
5.3. Life. Plants and animals. (Растения и животные)
Originally Aristotle divided all living creatures between plants that are generally not moving fast enough for people to notice, and animals. In the system of Linnaeus, they became the kingdoms Vegetabilia later plantae and animals. Since then, it has become clear that the soles, as originally defined included several unrelated groups, as well as fungi and some groups of algae were removed from the New Kingdom. However, they are still often considered plants in many contexts. Bacterial life is sometimes included in flora, and some classifications use the term bacterial flora separately from plant flora.
Among the many ways of classification of plants of regional flora, which, depending on the purpose of the study, can also include fossil flora, remnants of plant life from a previous era. People in many countries and regions take great pride in their individual arrays of characteristic flora, which can vary widely around the world because of differences in climate and terrain.
Regional floras are generally divided into categories such as native flora, and village and backyard flora, and finally mentioned which is specially grown and cultivated. Some types of "local flora" actually have been introduced centuries ago by people migrating from one region or continent to another, and have become an integral part of the native, or natural flora in which they were introduced. This is an example of how human interaction with nature can blur the boundaries of what is considered nature.
The other category of plants has historically cut for weed. Although this term fell into disfavor among botanists as a formal way to categorize "useless" plants, the informal use of the word "weeds" to describe those plants that are deemed worthy of elimination is illustrative of the General tendency of people and societies to seek to alter or shape the course of nature. Similarly, animals often manifests itself in forms such as domestic, agricultural animals, wild animals, pests, etc. in their relation to human life.
Animals as a category have several characteristics that generally set them apart from other living beings. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular although see Myxozoa, which separates them from bacteria, archaea and most protists. They are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.
With rare exception, primarily, of two types, consisting of sponges and placozoans animals have organs that differenciate in the fabric. These include muscles, which are able to contract and traction control, and the nervous system, which transmits and processes signals. Also typically an internal digestive chamber. In eukaryotic cells have all of the animals surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and Spicules, a framework through which cells can move about and be reorganized during development and maturation, and which supports the complex anatomy required for mobility.
6. Human relationships. (Человеческие отношения)
Though people represent only a small fraction of the total living biomass on Earth, the human effect on nature is disproportionately large. Because of the degree of human influence, the boundaries between what humans regard as nature and "media" are not unambiguous, except for the extremes. Even at the extremes, the amount of natural environment without noticeable human influence is declining at an increasingly rapid pace.
The development of technology the human race has allowed the greater exploitation of natural resources and helps to reduce the risk from natural disasters. Despite this progress, however, the fate of human civilization remains closely linked to changes in the environment. There is a very complex feedback loop between the use of advanced technologies and changes in the environment, which only gradually becomes clear. Anthropogenic threats to the earths natural environment include pollution, deforestation, and disasters such as oil spills. People contributed to the disappearance of many plants and animals.
People use nature for economic and leisure activities. The acquisition of natural resources for industrial use remains a significant component of the economic system of the worlds. Some activities, such as hunting and fishing, are used both for food and for tourists, often different people. Agriculture first took about 9 Millennium BC. Ranging from food production to energy, nature influences economic wealth.
Although in the past people gathered uncultivated plant materials for food and used the healing properties of plants for treatment, the most modern human use of plants in agriculture. Clearing large tracts of land for crop growth has led to a significant reduction in the number of available spaces and wetlands, resulting in habitat loss for many species of animals and plants, as well as increased erosion.
6.1. Human relationships. Aesthetics and beauty. (Эстетики и красоты)
Beauty in nature has historically been a prevalent theme in art and books, filling large sections of libraries and bookstores. That nature has been depicted and celebrated by so much art, photography, poetry and other literature shows the strength with which many people associate nature and beauty. The reasons why this relationship exists and what the Association consists of studied at the Department of philosophy called aesthetics. In addition to some basic characteristics that many philosophers agree about to explain what is considered beautiful, the opinions are virtually endless. Nature and wildness have been important issues in different eras of world history. According to the ancient tradition of landscape art began in China during the Tang dynasty 618-907. The tradition of representing nature as it has become one of the aims of Chinese painting and had a significant influence in Asian art.
Although natural wonders are celebrated in the Psalms and the book of job, images of wildlife in art has become more widespread in the 1800s, especially in the works of the romantic movement. British artists John constable and jmw Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of nature in his paintings. Before that, paintings were mainly of religious scenes or of human. William Wordsworths poetry described the wonder of nature, which was previously regarded as a threatening place. Increasingly in the assessment of nature became an aspect of Western culture. This art movement coincided with the movement of Yoga in the Western world. The usual classical idea of beautiful art involves the word mimesis, the imitation of nature. In addition, in the field of ideas about beauty in nature is that the perfect refers to the perfect mathematical forms and General patterns in nature. As David Rothenburg writes, "the beautiful is the root of science and art, the highest possibility that humanity can ever hope to see."
7. Matter and energy. (Материя и энергия)
In some fields of science see nature as matter in motion, obeying certain laws of nature that science seeks to understand. For this reason the most fundamental science is generally understood to be "physics" - the name for which is still recognizable as means that it is the study of nature."
Business, generally defined as substances which make up physical objects. It represents the observable Universe. The visible components of the Universe, as is now thought to account for only 4.9 percent of the total weight. The rest is believed to consist of 26.8 percent cold dark matter and 68.3 percent dark energy. The exact location of these components is still unknown and is under intensive investigation by physicists.
The behavior of matter and energy in the universe seems to follow clearly defined physical laws. These laws were used to produce cosmological models that successfully explain the structure and evolution of the Universe we can observe. The mathematical expression of the laws of physics employ a set of twenty physical constants that appear to be static across the observable Universe. The values of these constants have been carefully measured, but the reason for their specific values remains a mystery.
8. Beyond Earth. (За Пределами Земли)
Outer space, also simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. Outer space is used to distinguish it from airspace and terrestrial locations. Not there is a discrete boundary between the earths atmosphere and outer space, in the atmosphere gradually decreases with increasing altitude. Space in the Solar system is called interplanetary space, which passes into interstellar space in the so-called heliopause.
The space is loosely filled with several dozen types of organic molecules discovered to date by microwave spectroscopy, blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang and the origin of the Universe, and cosmic rays that include ionized atomic nuclei and various subatomic particles. There are also some gas, plasma and dust, and small meteors. In addition, there are signs of human life in outer space, for example, materials left over from previous manned and unmanned launches that are a potential danger to spacecraft. Some of these debris re-enters the atmosphere periodically.
Although the Earth is the only body in the Solar system known to support life, suggests that in the distant past, Mars possessed bodies of liquid water on the surface. For a brief period in the history of Mars may have been capable of forming life. Currently, though, most of the water remaining on Mars is frozen. If life exists on Mars, most likely, will be located underground where liquid water can still exist.
Conditions on other terrestrial planets, mercury and Venus are too harsh to support life as we know it. But it has been suggested that Europa, the fourth largest moon of Jupiter may have a surface ocean of liquid water and possibly host life.
Astronomers started to discover extrasolar Earth analogs – planets located in the habitable zone of space surrounding the star, and therefore may the master of life as we know it.
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