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The Jungle Book (1967 film)

The jungle book 1967 American animated musical Comedy film produced by Walt Disney. Based on the book by Rudyard Kiplings with the same name It is the 19th animated feature film of Disney. Directed by Wolfgang Reitherman, it was the last film produced by Walt Disney who died during its production. The plot follows Mowgli, a feral child raised in the Indian jungle by wolves, as his friends Bagheera the Panther and Baloo the bear try to convince him to leave the jungle before the evil tiger Shere Khan arrives. The first versions of both the screenplay and the soundtrack followed Kiplings work more closely with the dramatic, dark, and sinister tone which Disney did not want in his family film, leading to writer bill Pete composer Terry Gilkyson being replaced. The casting employed famous actors and musicians Phil Harris, Sebastian Cabot, George Sanders, Louis prima, as well as regulars such as sterling Holloway, John. Pat omalley, Verna Felton, and the Directors son, Bruce Reitherman, as Mowgli. The jungle book was released October 18, 1967 to positive reception, with recognition for the soundtrack consisting of five songs, brothers Sherman and Gilkyson, "the most necessary". The film initially became Disneys second highest grossing animated film in the United States and Canada, and has also been successful over the reissues. The film was also successful worldwide, becoming the highest grossing film in Germany by the number of visits. Disney has released the adaptation back in 1994, an animated sequel, the jungle Book 2 in 2003, a live-action remake directed by Jon Favreau was released in 2016.

                                               

One Hundred and One Dalmatians

One hundred and one Dalmatians is a American animated television series adventure, the 1961 film produced by Walt Disney and the adaptation of the 1956 novel the hundred and one Dalmatians Dodie Smith buy. Directed by Clyde Geronimi, Hamilton Luske, and Wolfgang Reitherman, it was the 17th animated feature film of Disney. The film tells the story of a litter of Dalmatian puppies that were kidnapped in the style of Cruella De vil, who wants to use their fur to make coats. Their parents, Pongo and Perdita set out to rescue their children from Cruella in the process of rescuing the 84 extra puppies that have been bought in pet stores, bringing the total number to 101 Dalmatians. The film was originally released in theaters January 25, 1961, on the distribution of Buena Vista, and was a box office success, pulling the Studio out of a financial crisis caused by the Sleeping beauty, released the more expensive products in the two years before. In addition to its box office revenues, its commercial success was due to cheap animation techniques - for example, use of xerography during the process of drawing and painting traditional animation-leaves - which have kept production costs down. Disney released adaptation in 1996 and a sequel, 102 Dalmatians 2000 live-action and spin-off / prequel to Director Craig Gillespie are scheduled for may 28, 2021.

                                               

Balto (film)

Balto 1995 American-British live-action / animated adventure film directed by Simon wells, produced lies entertainment and distributed by universal pictures. The film is based on a true story about a dog who helped save children from contaminated diphtheria epidemic in the 1925 serum run to nome. Starring: Kevin bacon, Bridget Fund, Jim Cummings, Phil Collins, Bob Hoskins, Miriam Margolyes video sequence. Live-action parts of the film were shot in new York in the Central Park of the city. The film was the third and final animated feature produced by Steven Spielberg, the British animation Studio Amblimation. Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, and Bonne Radford acted as Executive producers on the film. Although the film was a commercial success, it was overshadowed by the success of rival Disney-Pixar film toy Story subsequent strong sales on home video Led to two direct to video sequels: the second Balto: wolf quest 2002, Balto III: Wings of change 2004, although neither were in their roles. Unlike the original film, the sequel was completely animated and did not contain direct scenes.

                                               

Vincent (1982 film)

Vincent is a 1982 stop-motion short horror film write, draw and directed by Tim Burton and produced by Rick Heinrichs. This is the second disney horror film, the first being the watcher in the woods. About six minutes in length, currently no individual release of the film, except for a few pirate releases. It can be found on the 2008 special edition and collectors edition DVDs of the Nightmare before Christmas as a bonus and on the Cinema16 DVD American short films. The film is narrated by actor Vincent Price, a lifelong idol and inspiration for Burton. From this relationship, price would go on to appear in Burtons Edward Scissorhands. Later Vincent Price said that Vincent was "the most gratifying thing happened. It was immortality - better than a star on Hollywood Boulevard".

                                               

Alice's Birthday

Alices birthday, in 2009 Russian traditionally animated childrens science fiction film, directed by Sergey Seryogin and produced by master-film Studio. The film is based on the novel by the novel by Kir Bulychev about Alice Selezneva, a girl from the future. It is the spiritual successor to the 1981 animated film Mystery of the third planet from which it draws strong influence.

                                               

The Mitten (film)

The film centers on a girl who wants a dog. She brings home a puppy, but her mother do not let your puppy relax. The girl gets upset and goes outside to the Playground where all the other kids walking their dogs. She starts playing with her mitten, pretending that mittens is a dog. And the power of her imagination transforms it into a mitten knitted puppy that keeps mitten red color and black spots on the back. The puppy starts to chase the cat, which ends up taking refuge on the top of the Bulletin Board, saying, "anyone who has a dog can participate in competition of the kennel club!" The girl takes her puppy to the competition and it completes the task better than other dogs, but on the way to the finish line one of the strands of puppies coat hits the nail on the wooden barrier and he loses the competition. The girl takes him home and feed him when he turns back into a mitten. The mother notices that the girl is trying to feed the mitten and decides to make her a real puppy.

Animation
                                     

★ Animation

Animation is the way in which to manipulate images to look like moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn and painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets should be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animation is made using computer graphics. Computer animation can be very detailed 3D-animation, while in 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster than real-time visualization. Other common animation techniques to apply the method of stop motion in two-and three-dimensional objects, such as paper appliques, dolls or figurines.

Usually the animation effect is achieved a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion - as in motion pictures in General - is thought to rely on Phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still. Analog mechanical animation media, which rely on the rapid display of a sequence of images include the phenakisticope, Zoetrope, flip book and praxinoscope movie. Television and video-popular electronic entertainment media, which was originally analog and now are digital. For display on a computer, was developed techniques such as animated gifs and flash animations.

The animation is more prevalent than many people realize. In addition to short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media, dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is also common in video games, animations, user interfaces, and visual effects.

The physical movement of parts of the image due to simple mechanics such as moving pictures in the magic lantern shows – can also be considered animation. Mechanical manipulation of three-dimensional puppets and objects to simulate living beings has a very long history in the machines. Electronic machines were popularized by Disney like animatronics.

Animators-artists who spetsializiruyutsya in creating the animation.

                                     

1. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word "animation" comes from the Latin "animātiōn", stem "animātiō", meaning "giver of life". The primary meaning of the English word "agility" and used much longer than the sense of "moving image media".

                                     

2.1. History. Before cinematography. (Перед кинематографии)

Although the examples of sequential images can be found occasionally throughout the history of art, there is no evidence of any related technology that allowed artists to see their creations in motion until 1833. Other ways of creating moving images, manipulating numbers by hand, or with the mechanics, can be considered dolls, automata, shadows, and so about 1659 Magic lantern.

In 1833 phenakisticope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animations, which will also serve as the basis for the 1866 Zoetrope, flip book praxinoscope 1868, 1877, 1879 Muybridges zoopraxiscope and cinematography.

Several years before the breakthrough of cinema in 1895, Charles-Emile Reynaud had a lot of success with his MIME Lumineuses. These animated films, each of which contains from 300 to 700 personnel who manipulate and back in the last 10-15 minutes of the film. Piano music, songs and some dialogue in live performance, while some sound effects were synchronized with the electromagnet. As of October 28, 1892, in March 1900, Reynaud gave 12.800 shows a total of over 500.000 visitors to the Museum Grevin in Paris

                                     

2.2. History. Silent era. (Немой эпохи)

A few years after the film became popular, some manufacturers of optical toys produced a lot chromolithograph film loops adapted for toy magic lanterns usually with images traced from live action film footage. At a time when almost any animation you can see in theaters, kids project these animations loop at home.

Some early filmmakers, including John. Stewart blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomon and Edwin S. porter experimented with stop-motion animation, possibly Dating from about 1899. Blacktons Haunted hotel 1907 was the first big success which confounded the audience with objects apparently moving by themselves. A short film inspired other Directors to try the technique.

John. Stuart Blacktons humorous phases of funny faces 1906 is usually regarded as the first animated film to standard film. It was partially animated on the Board and partially with cutouts.

Emil Cohls Fantasmagorie 1908-the oldest known example of what came to be known as traditional hand drawn animation.

Great art and very powerful animations were made by Vladislav Starevich with his puppet animations 1910 and Winsor McKay with-drawn animation in films like little Nemo, 1911, and Gertie the Dinosaur 1914. Gertie was also one of the first examples of character development in drawn animation and featured a scene with a video recording of actions on McKay interacting with Gertie in a painted landscape.

During the 1910-ies, production of cartoons became an industry. The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the CEL animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the century.

In 1917, the Argentine filmmaker Quirino Cristiani made the first feature film, El Apostol, now lost, which became a critical and commercial success. It was followed by Cristianis sin Dejar rastros 1918, but one day after the premiere, the film was confiscated by the state.

In 1919, a silent animated short stupid cats marked the debut of Felix the cat became the first cartoon character during the silent film era to gain significant popularity.

After working on it for three years, Lotte Reiniger released German feature-length silhouette animation die adventure hotel Des prinzen Achmed in 1926.



                                     

2.3. History. 1928-1960s: the Golden age of American animation. (1928-1960: в золотой век американской анимации)

In 1928, Steamboat Willie, with Mickey mouse image, popularized by the movie with synchronized sound and put the Walt Disney Studio in the center of the animation industry. In 1932, Disney has introduced innovation full color in the flowers and trees as part of a three-year exclusive contract with Technicolor.

The huge success of Mickey mouse is regarded as the beginning of the Golden age of American animation, which would last until the 1960-ies. USA dominated the world market of animation with a lot of cel-animated theatrical shorts. Some studios will introduce characters that become very popular and have long-term vacancies, including Walt Disneys goofy in 1932 and Donald Duck in 1934, Warner Bros cartoons, Looney Tunes characters like daffy Duck 1937, bugs Bunny 1938 / 1940, Tweety 1941 / 1942, wile E. coyote and Road runner 1949, Fleischer Studios / paramount studios Cartoon Betty Boop 1930, a licensed Popeye King feature Syndicate 1933, Superman licensed DC comics 1941 and 1945, Casper, Studio MGM cartoon: Tom and Jerry and droopy 1940 Walter Lantz productions / universal Studio Cartoonss woody Woodpecker 1940, Terrytoons / 20th century Fox, mighty mouse 1942, United artists Pink Panther 1963. In addition to its success in theaters, such characters would also be very profitable if they have a license for all kinds of goods.

                                     

2.4. History. Animated. (Анимированные)

In 1937, Disney released its first feature-length animated film "Snow white and the seven dwarfs". It was a huge success worldwide. Fleischer studios have followed suit in 1939 with Gullivers Travels, with some success. Partly because external markets to be cut from the Second world war, following Disney features Pinocchio, Fantasia 1940, and both studios Fleischers second animated feature, Mr. bug goes to town 1941 / 1942 failed at the box office. For decades after that, Disney will be the only American Studio regularly to produce animated, until there was a competition in 1986 Sullivan Bluth studios American tail, and especially with Pixar in 1995.

                                     

2.5. History. In the early animated series on television. (В начале мультсериала на телевидении)

Animation has become very popular on television. In the United States and many other countries, the cartoons were programmed for Saturday morning and other time intervals, which was convenient for children.

In the back catalog of cartoons that were originally made for a short screening of the film in theaters, now proved to be very valuable for television broadcast and many of the classic series, thus, found a new life, with lots of repetitions.

In the late 1950-ies, production of cartoons began the transition from theatrical releases in the series. The limitations of American television programs in the result of faster and cheaper techniques of limited animation.

Hanna-Barbera productions was a particularly fruitful on television in such programs as ruff and Reddy show 1957-1960, in the Huckleberry hound show in 1958, the first half-hour television program to feature only animation, the quick draw McGraw show 1959-1961, 1960-1966 the Flintstones first Prime time animated series, yogi bear show 1961-1962 the Jetsons and Scooby-Doo, where are you!.

Other early television series was a Terrytoons Tom terrific 1958 and 1962, Deputy Dawg.



                                     

2.6. History. Since 1960-ies. (Начиная с 1960-х годов)

Japanese anime production has become very popular since the 1970-ies. Relatively cheap licensing provide a wide international distribution.

Computer animation became popular after "toy Story" in 1995, the first feature-length animated film completely made using this technique.

                                     

2.7. History. 2000s

In 2008, the animation market was worth 68.4 billion U.S. dollars. Animation as an art and industry continues to thrive in the mid-2010s, because well-made animated projects can find audiences across borders and in all four quadrants. Animated feature-length films returned the highest gross profit of about 52 per cent of all genres of film in 2004-2013.

Traditional animation film Studio passed on the production of mostly computer animated films since 1990-ies, as box statistics are considered to be cheaper and more profitable. However, 3D animation is not without some limitations, the unique attractions of 2D art, as Osamu Tezukas may not be rendered properly. The Studio aims to develop the medium and to overcome some technical limitations that traditional animation, focusing on organic and volumetric lighting and texturing to give your movies a unique look, while maintaining a handmade feel. "Hybrids of 2D and 3D technologies" allow for a unique style of animation that combine the expressiveness of 2D drawing with the dimension kg.

                                     

3. Animated videos. (Анимационные ролики)

The animation was very popular in television advertising, and because of its graphic appeal, and the humor it can provide. Some animated characters in commercials have survived for decades, such as Snap, Crackle and pop in advertisements for Kelloggs cereals. Legendary animation Director Tex Avery was the producer of the first RAID "kills bugs dead" commercials in 1966, which was very successful for the company.

                                     

4. Criticism. (Критика)

Criticism of animation has been spread in media and film since its inception. With its popularity, a large amount of criticism arose, especially animated feature films. Many issues of cultural representation, the psychological impact on children was raised around the entertainment industry, which has remained politically rather constant and does not change from its inception to the dominant culture. In more recent times, Disney has been trying to offset criticism about their racism against Africanism. For example, in the film the Princess and the frog, Africanism can be seen in almost every corner of the film. When they sing "dig deeper", there are colorful bottles seen hanging on the trees that the African-American communities believed that the bottle warns against evil spirits. During 1600-1800, the enslaved Africans brought these beliefs returning from Africa. Mama Odie the Princess and the frog depicts a voodoo priestess of Louisiana from generations of voodoo.



                                     

5. Awards. (Награды)

As in any other form of media, animation has instituted awards for outstanding achievements in the field. The original awards for animation were presented at the American Academy of motion picture arts and Sciences for animated shorts from 1932, during the 5-th function of the awards "Oscar". The first winner of the Academy award was the short flowers and trees, the production of Walt Disney. The Academy award for animated feature film was established only in 2001, and awarded during the 74th ceremony of the Academy awards in 2002. It won the film Shrek, produced by DreamWorks and Pacific data images. Disney / Pixar have produced the most movies either to win or to be nominated for the award.

  • The award "Oscar" for Best animated feature.
  • The award "Oscar" for Best animated short film.

A number of other countries have introduced the award for best animated feature film as part of their national film awards: Africa movie Academy award for Best animated starting in 2008, the BAFTA award for Best animated film, starting with the 2006 Cesar award for Best animated film since 2011, Golden rooster award for best animation since 1981, Goya award for Best animated film, since 1989, Japan Academy prize for animation 2007, the national film award for Best animated film, since 2006. Also in 2007, the Asia Pacific screen award for Best animated feature film was awarded at the Asia Pacific screen awards. In 2009 the European film Academy was awarded the European film Academy Award for Best animated film.

The Annie award is another award presented for outstanding achievements in the field of animation. Unlike the awards ceremony, the Oscars, the Annie awards are only received for achievements in the field of animation and not for any other areas of technical and artistic creativity. They were reorganized in 1992 to create a new field for Best animated feature. In the 1990s winners were dominated by Walt Disney, however, the new Studio, led by Pixar & DreamWorks, and now has been consistently fighting for this award. The list of awardees is as follows:

  • Annie award for Best animated feature.
  • Annie award for Best animated short subject.
  • Annie award for Best animated television production.
                                     

6. Production. (Производство)

The creation of non-trivial animation works, i.e., more than a few seconds happened in a movie, with some unique aspects. Features common to both live action and animated feature films of the complexity and high cost of production.

The most important difference is that each film is under production, the marginal cost of another shot is higher for animated films than live action films. It is relatively easy for the Director to ask for one more take during principal photography of a live-action film, but every take on an animated film must be manually rendered by animators though the task of translation is a little different is a less time consuming method of modern computer animation. Its pointless for the Studio to pay the salaries of dozens of animators to spend weeks creating a visually dazzling five-minute scene, if that scene fails to effectively advance the plot of the film. Thus, animation studios starting with Disney began the practice in the 1930-ies the history departments where storyboard artists develop every single scene through storyboards, then handing the film over to the animators only after the production crew has ascertained that all the scenes make sense as a whole. During the live-action film storyboards, and now, they enjoyed more freedom to deviate from the storyboard, i.e. in real-time improvisation.

Another problem unique to animation is the requirement of maintaining consistency of the movies from beginning to end, even when the movies are longer and teams is becoming more. Animators, like all artists, must have an individual style, but must subordinate their individuality on a regular basis any style works for a particular film. Since the beginning of the 1980s, teams with total strength of about 500 to 600 people, of which 50 to 70 animators, as a rule, were created full length animated films. It is relatively easy for two or three artists to match their styles, the synchronization of these artists more difficult.

This problem is usually solved by separate groups of artists development to develop the overall look and palette for each film before the animation begins. The designers of the symbols of the development team to draw model sheets to show how each character should look like with different facial expressions, posed in different poses and viewed from different angles. On traditionally animated projects, maquettes were often sculpted to further help the animators see how the characters would look from different angles.

Unlike fiction films, animated films traditionally developed beyond the synopsis stage in the format of a storyboard, the storyboard artists would then receive credit for writing the film. In the early 1960-ies, animation studios began hiring professional screenwriters to write screenplays, while continuing to use story departments and screenplays had become commonplace for animated films of the late 1980-ies.

                                     

6.1. Production. Animator. (Аниматор)

An animator is an artist who creates a visual or audio-visual, if you add the sound of several consecutive images that create the illusion of movement, i.e. animation. Animation currently in many fields of technology and video, such as film, television, video games or the Internet. As a rule, these works require collaboration of several animators. Methods for creating such images depends on the animator, and the style that he wants to achieve with the images created on the computer manually.

Animators can be divided into animators, artists, heroes, that are specialized in the movements, dialogues and actions of characters and multipliers effects.

                                     

7.1. Methods. Traditional animation. (Традиционная анимация)

Traditional animation also called cel animation or hand drawn animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. Individual frames of a traditionally animated film photographs of drawings, first draw it on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the previous one. The animators drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called leaves, which are filled in with paints in colors or tones on the side opposite the drawings. Completed character sheets are photographed one-by-one against a painted background the rostrum camera on the film.

The traditional CEL animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today, animators drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned or drawn directly into a computer system. Various programs are used to colors the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects. The final animated piece is output to one of several media, including traditional 35 mm film and new media with digital video. The "look" of traditional cel animation is preserved, and the character animators are working practically not changed over the past 70 years. Some manufacturers animation used the term "tradigital" play on words "traditional" and "digital" to describe CEL animation which uses considerable amount of computer equipment.

Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio USA 1940, farm animal Kingdom, 1954, lucky and Zorba Italy, 1998, and the illusionist Anglo-French, 2010. Traditionally animated films produced using computer technology include the lion King, USA, 1994, Prince of Egypt, USA, 1998, Akira Japan 1988, spirited away Japan, 2001, the triplets of Belleville France, 2003, and the Secret of Kells-Irish-French-Belgian, 2009.

                                     

7.2. Methods. Full animation. (Полная анимация)

All animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films that regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement, having a smooth animation. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles, from more realistically animated works produced in the studios of Walt Disney in the styles of cartoons Warner Bros animation Studio. Many of the disney cartoons examples of animation, not Disney works, "the secret of NiMH" USA, 1982, Iron giant, 1999, and nightlife Spain, 2007. Fully animated animation at 24 frames per second, with a combination of animation on ones and twos, which means that the drawings can be held for one frame of 24, or two frames out of 24.

                                     

7.3. Methods. Limited animation. (Ограниченная анимация)

Limited animation involves the use of less detailed and more stylized drawings and methods of movement usually a choppy or "Skippy" movement animation. Companies animation uses fewer drawings per second, thereby limiting the mobility of the animation. This is a more economical method. For the first time in American Studio production organization of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in Gerald mcboing Boing-Boing USA, 1951, yellow submarine UK 1968, and some of the anime produced in Japan. Its primary use, however, was in producing cost-effective animated content for media to TV and later the web In Network cartoons.

                                     

7.4. Methods. Rotoscoping. (Ротоскопирования)

Rotoscoping is a method patented by Max Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame. The source movie could be copied from the participants outlines into animated drawings, as in "the Lord of the rings", USA, 1978, or used in a stylized and expressive manner, as in the real life USA, 2001 and clouding of the United States, 2006. Other examples are fire and ice USA, 1983, heavy metal 1981, and Aku but Khan 2013.

                                     

7.5. Methods. Live action and animation. (Живое действие и анимация)

Live action and animation is a technique combining hand-drawn characters into live action shots or live actors into animated action pictures. One of the earlier uses in Koko the clown when Koko was drawn over live action shooting. Walt Disney and UB changed the world has created a series of Alice comedies 1923-1927, in which live-action the girl gets into the animated world. Other examples include Allegro is not too Italy, 1976, Who framed Roger rabbit USA, 1988, Space jam, USA, 1996, osmosis Jones, USA, 2001.

                                     

7.6. Methods. Stop motion animation. (Стоп-моушн анимация)

Stop-motion animation used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame at a time, to create the illusion of motion. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the medium used to create animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation, traditional frame-by-frame animation, usually cheaper but more time-consuming to produce than current computer animation.

  • Puppet animation typically involves stop-motion puppet figures interact in an artificial environment, unlike the real-world interaction in model animation. Puppets, typically have a frame inside them to keep them still and steady, to limit their movement in certain joints. Examples include the tale of the Fox France, 1937, "the Nightmare before Christmas," USA, 1993, "the Corpse bride" USA, 2005, Coraline, USA, 2009, movies Jiei Trnka and adult animated sketch-Comedy television series robot Chicken USA, 2005–present.
  • Puppetoon, created using techniques developed by George PAL, a few puppet-animated films which typically use a different version of a puppet for different periods, and not simply manipulating one existing puppet.
  • Strata-cut animation, strata-cut animation is most commonly in the form of clay animation in which a long bread-like "loaf" of clay, the inside is tightly Packed and loaded with various pictures sliced into thin sheets, with the animation camera shooting scene from the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually showing the movement of the internal images within.
  • Clay animation, or claymation, uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. Numbers can have a frame or wire frame inside, similar to the related puppet animation that can be manipulated to represent numbers. In addition, these figures may be made entirely of clay, in the films of Bruce Bickford, where clay creatures transform into different shapes. Examples of clay-animated works: guys, show us, 1957-1967, Mio Mao Italy, 1974-2005, transforming into shorts UK, 1977-2000, Wallace and Gromit shorts UK, as of 1989, Jan Svankmajers dimensions of dialogue, Czechoslovakia 1982, hatch, UK, 1984. Movie: Wallace and Gromit: the Curse of the were-rabbit, chicken run and the adventures of Mark TWAIN.
  • Silhouette animation is a variant of cutout animation in which the characters are backlit and only visible as silhouettes. Examples include the adventures of Prince Achmed the Weimar Republic, 1926 and princes Et princesses France, 2000.
  • Cutout animation is a type of stop motion animations that occur when moving two-dimensional pieces of paper or fabric. Examples include Terry Gilliams animation sequences from Monty Pythons flying circus in the UK, 1969-1974, fantastic planet France / Czechoslovakia, 1973, tales of Russia, 1979, the pilot episode of the adult Comedy television series and occasionally in episodes of "South Park", USA, 1997 and the music video at the moment, from Verona riots band produced by Alberto Serrano and Nivola UYa, Spain 2014.
  • Model animation refers to stop-motion animation created to interact with and exist as a part of life. Intercutting, matte effects and split screens are often used to blend stop-motion characters or objects with live actors and settings. Examples include the work of ray Harryhausen, as seen in the films, Jason and the Argonauts 1963 and the work of Willis H. obrien on the films, king Kong 1933.
  • Go motion is a variant of model animation which uses various techniques to create motion blur between frames of film which are not present in traditional stop motion. This technique was invented by industrial light & magic and Phil Tippett to create special effects scenes for the film the Empire strikes back 1980. Another example is the dragon named "Vermithrax" from the dragon film 1981.
  • Object animation refers to the use of regular inanimate objects in stop-motion animation, in contrast to specially created items.
  • Graphic animation uses unformed flat visual graphic material, which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera to create on-screen action.
  • Brickfilm is a subgenre of animation objects using LEGO or other similar brick toys to make an animation. It was the latest increase in popularity with the advent of video sharing sites, YouTube and the availability of cheap cameras and software to create animations.
  • Pixilation involves the use of live humans as stop motion characters. This allows for a number of surreal effects, including disappearances and returns to life, allowing people to appear to slide on the ground and other effects. Examples of pixilation include the secret adventures of Tom thumb and angry kid shorts, and Academy award-winning neighbours, Norman McLaren.
                                     

7.7. Methods. Computer animation. (Компьютерная анимация)

Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying factor is that the animation is created digitally on a computer. 2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D technology usually build virtual worlds in which characters and objects move and interact. 3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.

                                     

7.8. Methods. 2D animation. (2D анимация)

2D animation drawings created or modified on the computer using 2D bitmap and vector 2D graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques, interpolated morphing, onion skinning and interpolated rotoscoping.

2D animation has many applications, including analog computer animation, Flash animation, and animations for PowerPoint. The cinemagraphs are still photographs in the form of animated GIF file of which part is animated.

Final line advection animation is a technique used in 2D animation to giving artists and animators more influence and control over the final product as everything is done within the same Department. Speaking of the use of this approach in paperman John Kahrs said that "our animators can change things, to actually get rid of the CG underlayer if they want and change the profile by hand."

                                     

7.9. Methods. 3D animation. (3D анимация)

3D animation digital modeled and manipulated by an animator. The animator usually starts by creating a 3D polygon mesh to manipulate. The mesh typically includes a plurality of vertices connected by edges and faces that give a visual representation of the shape of a 3D object or 3D environment. Sometimes, mesh is given an internal digital skeletal structure called an armature that can be used to control the mesh by weighting the vertices. This process is called rigging and can be used in conjunction with keyframes to create movement.

Other methods can be used, mathematical functions, simulated fur or hair, effects fire and water simulation. These methods fall under the category of 3D dynamics.

                                     

7.10. Methods. 3D conditions. (3Д условия)

  • Physically, the animation is animation using computer modeling.
  • Motion capture is used for live-action actors wear special suits that allow computers to copy their movements into CG characters. Examples: the Polar Express 2004, USA, Beowulf 2007, USA, a Christmas story 2009, USA, adventure of Tintin 2011, USA kochadiiyan 2014, India.
  • Machinima – films created to capture the screen in video games and virtual worlds. The term originated from the introduction of software in the 1980s demoscene, as well as 1990s, years recording first-person shooter video Game Quake.
  • Photo-realistic animation is used primarily for animation that attempts to resemble real life, using advanced rendering that mimics in detail skin, plants, water, fire, clouds, etc. Examples include up to 2009, US, How to train your dragon 2010, United States.
  • Cel-shaded animation is used to mimic traditional animation using computer programs. Shading looks stark, with less blending colors. Examples include, Skyland 2007, France, the Iron giant 1999, USA, Futurama, Fox, 1999 Apple seed ex machine 2007, Japan, the Legend of Zelda: the wind Waker 2002, Japan, the Legend of Zelda: spirit Wild 2017, Japan.
                                     

7.11. Methods. Mechanical animation. (Механические анимация)

  • Audio-animatronics and Autonomatronics is a form of robotics animation, combined with 3-D animation developed by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks move and make noise, usually a voice recording or song. They are attached to any of their supports. They can sit and stand and they cant walk. An audio-Animatron is different from Android-type robot in that it uses prerecorded movements and sounds, rather than reacting to external stimuli. In 2009, Disney created an interactive version of the technology called Autonomatronics.
  • Animatronics is the use of mechatronics in the creation of machines that seem to animate, not robots.
  • Linear alternator the animation is shape animation by using static frames installed in a tunnel or a shaft. The illusion of animation is created by putting the viewer in a linear motion, parallel to the installed frame. The concept and technical solutions were invented in 2007 Girlovan Mihai in Romania.
  • Magic lantern mechanical slides used for projection of moving images, probably with Christian Huygens invented this early image projector in 1659.
  • Chuckimation is a type of animation created by the makers of the television action League now! in which the characters / props are thrown, or tossed from the camera or wiggled around to simulate talking by unseen hands.
                                     

7.12. Methods. Other animation styles, techniques and approaches. (Другие стили анимации, методов и подходов)

  • Erasure animation: a technique using traditional 2D media, photographed over time as the artist manipulates the image. For example, William kentridge is famous for his charcoal Erasure films, and Piotr thought on its authors technique of animating scratches on plaster.
  • Hydraulic engineering: a method that includes light, water, fire, fog, and lasers, with high-definition projections on mist screens.
  • Sand animation: sand is moved along the back or front lighted piece of glass to create each frame for an animated film. This creates an interesting effect when animated because of the light contrast.
  • Paint on glass animation: a technique for creating animated films by manipulating slow drying paints on sheets of glass, such as Alexander Petrov.
  • Multi-sketching. (Мульти-эскизирование)
  • Drawn on film animation: a technique where the record is produced by creating images directly on film, for example, Norman McLaren, len lye and Stan Brakhage.
  • Pinscreen animation: allows you to use the screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object on the screen. The screen is lit from the side so that the pins cast shadows. This method was used to create animated films with a variety of textural effects difficult to achieve with traditional cel animation.
  • Flip book: a flip book is a book with series of pictures that gradually change from one page to another, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, pictures to animate, simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, they should also be aimed at adults, and use of a series of photographs, not drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, they appear as an additional feature in ordinary books or magazines often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into a special book.
  • Character animation. (Анимация персонажей)
  • Special animation effects. (Специальные анимационные эффекты)

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