Топ-100 ★ Concepts - Concept, Abstract and concrete, Afro-pessimism, C

★ Concepts - Concept, Abstract and concrete, Afro-pessimism, Category, Kant, Category of being, Comply or explain ..



Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or General notions arising in the mind, in speech or in thought. They are considered the basic building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, the concept is studied by several disciplines such as linguistics, psychology, and philosophy, and these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts and how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences. The study of concepts and serves as an important flagship of the evolving multidisciplinary approach called cognitive science. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what is the concept: Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents mental States. Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the consciousness of mental objects. Concepts as Fregean senses see sense and reference, where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental States. Concepts can be organized in a hierarchy, the higher levels are referred to as "higher" and lower levels, the term "subordinate". In addition, there are "basic" or "average" level at which people will be more willing to classify concepts. For example, the basic concept will be "chair", with his Manager, "furniture", and his subordinates, "soft seat". The concept is created materialized all of its actual or potential instances whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all knowledge should happen through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in mathematics, computer science, databases and artificial intelligence, where they are sometimes called classes, schema, or category. Informal to use the word often means any ideas.


Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that indicate whether the object is, the term describes the physical referents. Abstract objects have no physical nature, while specific objects. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstract and concrete objects are sometimes called was the largest poured concrete. An abstract object is an object that does not exist at any particular time or place, but rather exists as a type of thing - that is the idea or abstraction. The term abstract object is said to have been coined by Willard van Orman Quine. The study of abstract objects is called abstract object theory.



Afropessimism field of thought that takes seriously the historical reality that the darkness is a politically and ontologically coincide with slaveness. According to the 2018 Oxford bibliographical references afropessimism wrote Patrice Douglas, Selamawit D. Terrefe, and Frank B. Wilderson III, in afropessimism can be understood as" a lens of interpretation that accounts for civil society dependent on anti-black violence - a mode of violence that positions black people as internal enemies of civil society.” This violence, they argue that" cannot be analogized to modes of violence, subjects of Marxist subaltern, post-colonial subaltern, in colour, but nechemya Western immigrants, the non-queer, or non-black woman.” According to Wilderson, the scientist who coined the term as it functions todays most popular, afropessimism theorizes blackness, as the situation using the language scholar Saidiya Hartman, "accumulation and distribution", i.e. as a condition or relationship to ontological death, in contrast to the cultural identity or human subjectivity. Unlike humanists, anthropologists, historians, sociologists and political scientists who are engaged in the history of black subjectivity as one of the entrenched political discrimination and social exclusion, Afro-pessimists in the disciplines claimed that black people and others excluded from the category of self-possession, with the human rights of our time. As Wilderson writes," blacks do not function as political actors, on the contrary, our flesh and energies are used for the post-colonial, immigrant, feminist, LGBT, and agendas of the workers.”


Category (Kant)

In Kants philosophy, a category is a pure concept of understanding. Categories of Kant is a feature of the appearance of any object in General, before it has been experienced. Kant wrote that "they are concepts of an object in General." Kant also wrote that ".pure concepts of the understanding which apply to objects of intuition in General." Such a category is not a classificatory division, as the word is normally used. It is, instead, the condition of the possibility of objects in General, that is, as such, and any objects, not specific objects, particularly objects.


Category of being

In the ontology, different types or ways of being are called categories of being or simply categories. To study the category of being is to determine the most fundamental and wide classes of entities. The distinction between such categories, creating categories and their applications, is called ontological difference.


Comply or explain

"Comply or explain" regulatory approach used in great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and other countries in the area of corporate governance and financial control. Instead of binding laws, state regulatory bodies set of code, which listed companies can either match, or if they do not comply, explain publicly why they do not. Code the UK corporate governance, the German corporate governance Code and the Dutch corporate governance Code, the Tabaksblat code to use this approach to establish minimum standards for companies in the audit committees, remuneration committees and recommendations for how a good company supposed to share power on their boards. The purpose of "comply or explain": "let the market decide" whether a set of standards relevant for individual companies. As the company may deviate from the standard, this approach rejects the view that "one size fits all" and therefore the disclosure requirement explanation of investors to the market, suggests that if investors do not accept the companys explanations, then investors will sell their shares, hence creating a "market foreclosure", not legal. This concept was first introduced after recommendations of the Cadbury report in 1992.

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