Топ-100 ★ Government - Government, State government, Administrative ce
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★ Government - Government, State government, Administrative centre, Artificial intelligence in government, Bicameralism, Bureaucracy ..




                                               

Government

The government is a system or group of people governing an organized community, often the state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislative, Executive and judicial power. The government is the means by which enforced organizational policies, as well as the mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of Constitution, a statement of their principles and philosophy. As a rule, the selected philosophy is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state tyranny government. In all types of organization management, the word power is often used to refer specifically approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiaries. Historically common forms of government are monarchy, aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny. The main aspect of the philosophy of power as a political power, it turns out, with the two major forms of electoral competition, and inheritance according to the law. Libertarianism and anarchism are political ideologies that seek to limit or abolish the government, finding the government prevents self-organization and freedom.

                                               

State government

The state government is a government subdivision of the country into a Federal form of government, which shares political power with the Federal or national government. The power of the state can have a certain level of political autonomy, or be subject to the direct control of the Federal government. These relations can be defined in the Constitution. The reference to "state" refers to the country units, which are officially or widely known as the "state," and should not be confused with "sovereign state." The province, as a rule, units of unitary States. Their governments, which are also of the provincial government, are not the subject of this article. USA and Australia are the main examples of Federal systems in which the term "state" is used for the subnational components of the Federation. In addition, in the canadian provinces fulfil a similar role. The term for subnational units in non-English speaking States can also often translated as "state", e.g. States of Germany German lander.

                                               

Administrative centre

The administrative center is the seat of regional administration or local government, or County town, or the place where the Central administration of the commune. In countries where the French language as one of its administrative languages and in some other countries, such as Italy, Ms. cognate capoluogo, chef-lieu of the French language: plural chefs-jobs literally "chief" or "head place", is a city or town that is outstanding from the point of view of the administrator. F’ In chef-is pronounced, in contrast to chef-doeuvre where it is off.

                                               

Artificial intelligence in government

Artificial intelligence has a wide range of applications in government. It can be used to further public policy objectives, and will assist the public to interact with government. According to "Harvard Business Review", "the application of artificial intelligence in the public sector is wide and growing, with early experiments happening in the world." Hila Mehr from the center of ash for democratic governance and innovation at Harvard University notes that artificial intelligence in the new government, mail services using methods of machine at the end of the 1990s, to recognize handwriting on envelopes for automatic redirection of emails. The application of AI to the government comes with significant benefits but also carries risks.

                                               

Bicameralism

Bicameral legislature and legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers or houses. Bicameralism different from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some lawmakers who have three or more separate assemblies, chambers or houses. As of 2015, less than half the worlds national legislature is bicameral. Often, members of both chambers are elected or selected by various methods, which differ from country to country. This can often lead to two cameras with very different participants. The adoption of the basic legislation often requires the concurrent majority - the approval of the majority members in each chamber of the legislature. In this case, the legislature may be called a perfect example of bicameralism. However, in many parliamentary and semi-presidential systems, among which the owner can cancel the other house and can be considered an example of imperfect bicameralism. Some lawmakers lie between these two positions, with one house can only cancel under certain circumstances.

                                               

Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy is understood as a body of unelected government and administrative policies of the group. Historically, that bureaucracy was government administration managed by departments work with unelected officials. Today, the bureaucracy, the administrative system governing any large institution, whether public or private. Public administration in many countries is an example of bureaucracy and centralized hierarchical structure of the enterprise. Various commentators have noted the necessity of bureaucracy in modern society. German sociologist Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational way in which human activity can be organized and systematic processes and organized hierarchies are necessary to maintain order, increase efficiency and eliminate favoritism. On the other hand, Weber also saw bureaucracy unlimited as a threat to individual freedom, with the ability to capture individuals in an impersonal "iron cage" rules-based, rational control.

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