Топ-100 ★ Knowledge - Knowledge, History of knowledge, Outline of know

★ Knowledge - Knowledge, History of knowledge, Outline of knowledge, A Causal Theory of Knowing, acquisition, Activity theory ..



Knowledge is knowledge, awareness or understanding of someone or something such as facts information descriptions or skills which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit, as with practical skill or knowledge or explicit as with the theoretical understanding of the subject, it can be more or less formal and systematic. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology, the philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief", although this definition is now thought by some analytical philosophers to be problematic because of the problems and location of gettier, while others defend Platos definition. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories explaining its existence. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, communication and reasoning, while knowledge is also said to be addicted to the possibility of recognizing people.


History of knowledge

The history of knowledge in the area of coverage of knowledge and of a famous person created or opened throughout the history of the world and its historical forms, focus, storage, media, influence, mediation, distribution of apps, social contexts, conditions and methods of production. This applies, separate from the history of science, history of science and the history of philosophy. The history of knowledge covers all opened and created areas of human knowledge such as logic, philosophy, mathematics, science, sociology, psychology, data mining, etc.


Outline of knowledge

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge – familiarity with someone or something which can include facts, information, descriptions, and / or skills acquired through experience or education. It may refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit, as with practical skill or knowledge or explicit as with the theoretical understanding of the subject, and it can be more or less formal and systematic.


A Causal Theory of Knowing

"The causal theory of knowledge" is a philosophical essay written by Alvin Goldman in 1967, published in the journal of philosophy. It is based on existing theories of knowledge epistemology, the study of philosophy through the sphere of knowledge. In the essay attempts to define knowledge, connecting facts, beliefs, and knowledge through basic and connecting of the series, which is called a causal chain. It provides a causal theory of knowledge. The causal chain is repeatedly described as the sequence of events for which one event in the chain causes the next. According to Goldman, these chains can exist only when there is a generally accepted fact, a belief, for a subject to believe the fact. The essay also explores the ideas of perception and memory through the use of causal chains and the concept of knowledge.


Knowledge acquisition

Knowledge acquisition is the process used to define the rules and ontologies required for a knowledge system. This phrase was first used in combination with the expert system to describe the original problem associated with the development of the expert system, namely the search and interviews of experts in the field and capturing their knowledge using rules, objects and frames based on ontology. The expert system was one of the first successful applications of artificial intelligence technologies to solve real business problems. Researchers from Stanford and other AI laboratories have worked with physicians and other highly skilled professionals to develop systems that can automate complex tasks such as medical diagnosis. Up to this point, computers are mainly used to automate data-intensive tasks but not for complex reasoning. Technologies such as speech recognition engines has allowed developers for the first time to solve more complex tasks. As expert systems, scaled from a demonstration of prototypes for industrial applications, he soon realized that the acquisition of expertise in the subject area was one of, if not the most important task in the process of knowledge. This process of knowledge acquisition has become an intense area of research in its own way. One of the earlier works on this subject uses theory, Batesonian learning to guide the process. One of the ways of acquiring knowledge are investigated to use natural language analysis and generation to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge. Natural language analysis can be performed on manuals and other expert documents and the first pass at the rules and objects can be automatically created. The creation of the text was also extremely useful in generating explanations of the system behavior. This greatly facilitated the development and maintenance of expert systems. A more recent approach to knowledge acquisition is the reuse-based approach. Knowledge can be developed in the ontology that correspond to the standards such as the web ontology language Owl. In this case, knowledge can be standardized and common for a wide range of knowledge workers. One example of a domain where this approach has been successful is bioinformatics.


Activity theory

Theory of activity is an umbrella term for a line of eclectic social Sciences theories and research with its roots in the Soviet psychological theory of activity, developed by L. S. Vygotsky, A. Leontiev and S. Rubinstein. These scientists have tried to understand human activity as a systemic and social phenomena and go beyond paradigms of reflexology and classic conditioning, psychoanalysis and behaviorism. He became one of the major psychological approaches in the former USSR is widely used in theoretical and applied psychology and in education, professional training, ergonomics, social psychology and psychology of labor. Theory of activity is more of a descriptive meta-theory or structure compared to a predictive theory. He considers the whole system of work / activities beyond just one actor or user. It falls on a Wednesday, the story of a man of culture, the role of the artifact, motivations, and complexity of activities. One of the strong points is that he is a bridge between the individual subject and the social reality - it studies both within the mediation. The unit of analysis is the concept of object-oriented, collective and culturally conditioned human activity, or activity system. This system includes the object or aim, object, mediating artefacts, signs and tools, rules, community and division of labour. The motive for the activity is created in the tensions and contradictions within elements of the system. According to ethnographer Bonnie Nardi, a leading theorist in activity theory "focuses on practice, which obviates the need to distinguish applied from pure science - understanding everyday practice in the real world is the goal of scientific practice. The object of activity theory is to understand the unity of consciousness and activity". Sometimes called "cultural-historical activity theory", this approach is particularly useful for the study group, which exists "largely in a virtual form, its communication mediated mainly through electronic and printed texts." This is particularly useful as a lens in qualitative research methods. Is a method of understanding and analyzing a phenomenon, finding patterns and insights of various interactions, describing phenomena and presenting phenomena through a built-in language and rhetoric. Specific activity is purposive or purposeful interaction of a subject with an object through the use of tools. These funds were taken out of the forms of mental processes manifested in constructs, whether physical or psychological. At recognizes the internalization and externalization of cognitive processes involved in the use of tools, as well as the transformation or development that is the result of interaction.

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