Топ-100 ★ Mind - Mind, Action theory, philosophy, Altered state of con

★ Mind - Mind, Action theory, philosophy, Altered state of consciousness, Anomalous experiences, Aristotelianism, Centre for the Mind ..



The mind is a set of cognitive abilities, including consciousness, imagination, perception, thinking, judgment, language and memory, which is located in the brain. It is usually defined as the faculty of an entity, mind and consciousness. He has the power of imagination, recognition and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a long tradition in philosophy, religion, psychology and cognitive science about what intelligence is and what its distinguishing properties. One open question about the nature of the mind is the problem of body and mind, which considers the relationship of the soul with the physical brain and nervous system. Old views are included dualism and idealism, which considered the mind as something non-physical. Modern views often physicalism and functionalism, who believe that the mind has about the same brain, or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity, although the dualism and idealism still have a lot of supporters. Another question, what kinds of creatures are able to have mind new scientist, 8 September 2018 P10. For example, can the mind only people who had some or all animals, all living beings, be it strictly defined characteristics, or the mind may be a property of certain types of anthropogenic machine. Regardless of its nature, there is General agreement that the mind is what allows us to have subjective awareness and intentionality towards their environment, to perceive and respond to stimuli with some kind of Agency and consciousness, including thinking and feeling. The concept of the mind means different things to different cultural and religious traditions. Some believe that consciousness as the property solely for people while others ascribe properties of mind to non-living entities, for example, panpsychism and animism, animals and gods. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind sometimes described as identical with soul or spirit of the theories about life after death, and cosmological and natural order, for example in the teachings of Zoroaster, Buddha, Plato, Aristotle and other ancient Greek, Indian and, later, Islamic and medieval European philosophers. Well-known philosophers of mind include Plato, Patanjali, Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Searle, Dennett, Fodors, Nagel, and Chalmers. Psychologists such as Freud and James, and computer scientists such as Turing and Putnam developed the influential theories about the nature of mind. The possibility of non-biological intelligence researchers in the field of artificial intelligence, which works closely in connection with Cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which information processing of non-biological machines of the same or other psychic phenomena in human consciousness. The mind is also represented as a stream of consciousness where sense-impressions and mental phenomena are constantly changing.


Action theory (philosophy)

The theory of action is an area in philosophy for theories about the processes causing intentional bodily movements of more or less complex person. This area of thinking presupposes epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, law, and philosophy of mind, and became of considerable interest to philosophers since Aristotles Nicomachean ethics. With the advent of psychology and later neuroscience, many theories of action are now subject to empirical testing. Philosophical action theory, or philosophy of action, should not be confused with sociological theories of social action, such as the theory of validity, as established by Talcott Parsons. It should not be confused with the theory of activities.


Altered state of consciousness

An altered state of consciousness, also called altered state of mind or a change of mind, is any condition which is significantly different from the normal state of wakefulness. By 1892, this expression is used in relation to hypnosis, although debate continues about hypnosis as an ASC based on the modern definition does not exist. The following extracted example, Dr. Max Mailhouse from his presentation at the conference of 1904, however, by far identificireba as such, as it was in relation to epilepsy, and is still used today. In scientific circles, the expression was used in 1966 by Arnold M. Ludwig and brought into common usage from 1969 by Charles tart. It describes induced changes in mental state, almost always temporary. A synonymous phrase is "altered state of consciousness."


Anomalous experiences

Anomalous experiences, such as so-called benign hallucinations, may occur in man in a state of mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient cause such factors as fatigue, intoxication or sensory deprivation. The evidence for this claim has accumulated over more than a century. Studies of benign hallucinatory experiences go back to 1886 and the early work of the Society for psychical research, which suggested that about 10% of the population have experienced at least one hallucinatory episode in their life. Later studies confirmed these findings, the precise incidence found varies with the nature of the episode and the criteria for "Hallucinations" is accepted, but the main conclusion is now well supported.



The Aristotelian tradition, a philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. This school of thought, in the modern sense of philosophy, covers the existence, ethics, mind, and related disciplines. In the time of Aristotle, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the emergence of modern science during the scientific revolution. The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the philosophical school of the peripatetics and Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on works of Aristotle. In the Islamic Golden age, Avicenna, and averroes Translations of works of Aristotle into Arabic, and along with philosophers such as al-Kindi and al-Farabi, the Aristotelian has become an important part of early Islamic philosophy. Moses Maimonides adopted the Aristotelian of the Islamic scholars and based his guide for the perplexed on this and became the basis of Jewish scholastic philosophy. Although some of Aristotles logical works were known in Western Europe, it wasnt until the Latin translations of the 12th century that the works of Aristotle and his Arabic commentators became widely available. Scholars such as albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas interpreted and systematized Aristotles works in accordance with Catholic theology. After retreating under criticism from modern natural philosophers, a clearly Aristotelian idea of teleology was transmitted through Wolff and Kant to Hegel, who applied it to history as a totality. Although this project was criticized by Trendelenburg and Brentano as non-Aristotelian, the influence of Hegels now it is often said that the responsibility for the important influence of Aristotle on Marx. Recent Aristotelian ethical and practical philosophy, such as Gadamer and McDowell, is often premised on the rejection Aristotelianisms traditional metaphysical or theoretical philosophy. From this point of view, the first modern tradition of political republicanism, which views the RES of the audience, public sphere or state as constituted by its citizens virtuous activity, can appear thoroughly Aristotelian. The most famous contemporary Aristotelian philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre. Especially famous for helping to revive virtue ethics in his book After virtue, MacIntyre revises the Aristotelian argument that the highest temporal goods, which are internal to the person aktualisierte through participation in social practices. He contrasts the Aristotelian with the managerial institutions of capitalism and its state, and to other traditions, including the philosophy of Hume and Nietzsche - that reject the Aristotelian concept of the nature of human goods and virtues and instead of legitimate capitalism. Thus, on account of the MacIntyres, the Aristotelian is not identical with Western philosophy as a whole, rather, it is "the best theory is the best theory about what makes a particular theory the best." Politically and socially, he was described as a new "revolutionary Aristotelian". This can be contrasted with the more conventional, apolitical and effectively conservative uses of Aristotle, for example, Gadamer and McDowell. Other important contemporary Aristotelian theorists include Fred D. Miller, Jr. in politics and Rosalind Hursthouse in ethics.


Centre for the Mind

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