Топ-100 ★ Philosophy - Philosophy, Absolute and relative terms, Apeiro

★ Philosophy - Philosophy, Absolute and relative terms, Apeiron, Axiology, Biosophy, Les Chemins de la philosophie ..



Philosophy is the study of General and fundamental questions of existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems that need to be studied and solved. This term likely coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions: is it possible to learn something and prove? What is most real? Philosophers also provide more practical and concrete questions such as: is there a better way to live? Better to be just or unjust? Man has free will? Historically, the "philosophy" covers any set of knowledge. Since the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle until the 19th century, "natural philosophy" covers astronomy, medicine and physics. For example, 1687 Newton, Mathematical principles of natural philosophy later became classified as the book physics. In the 19th century, the rise of the modern research University led the academic philosophy and other disciplines, professionalization and specialization. In the modern era, some investigations that have traditionally been part of philosophy became a separate scientific disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics and Economics. Other studies closely related to art, science, politics, or other occupation remained part of the philosophy. For example, beauty is objective or subjective? There are many scientific methods or only one? The political utopia as a hopeful dream or a hopeless fantasy? The main sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics "is associated with the fundamental nature of reality and being," epistemology on "the nature and grounds of knowledge.its limits and validity", ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science.


Absolute and relative terms

The distinction between absolute and relative indicators was introduced by Peter Unger in his article, 1971 defense of skepticism and distinguishes the terms which, in the most literal sense, does not admit of degrees, and those that do. According to him, the term "flat", for example, is an absolute term, because the surface is perfectly flat or not flat at all. The terms "Bounce" or "curved", on the other hand, is a relative term, because there is no such thing as "absolute mash" or "absolute curvedness". An uneven surface can always be made more bumpy. A truly flat surface, however, can never be made flatter. In common parlance, he admits, we say things like "the surface smoother than the surface B", but its just a shorter way of saying "the surface is closer to flat than the surface B". This paraphrase, however, does not work on relative terms. Another important aspect in absolute terms, which was the reason for this choice of terminology is that they can always be modified by the term "brand". For example, it is natural to say: "this surface is completely flat," but it would be very strange and even meaningful to say: "this surface will be bumpy".



Apeiron is a Greek word meaning "unlimited," "boundless", "infinite" or "indefinite" from ἀ - a -, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", "border", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary". This is akin to the Persian piramon, which means "border, circumference, environment."



Axiology is the philosophical study of values. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics philosophical fields that crucially depend on notions of worth, or the basis for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and meta-ethics. The term was first used by Paul Lapie, in 1902, and Edward von Hartmann, in 1908. Axiology studies mainly two kinds of values: ethics and aesthetics. Ethics investigates the concepts of "right" and "good" in individual and social behavior. Aesthetics studies the concept of "beauty" and "harmony". Formal axiology, the attempt to state the principles regarding value with mathematical rigor, says Robert S. science Hartmans value.



Biosophy, meaning wisdom of life, is "the science and art of intelligent living based on the awareness and practice of spiritual values, ethical-social principles and character qualities essential to individual freedom and social harmony". It is against biology that can be broadly described as the understanding of life.


Les Chemins de la philosophie

Forest road de La Philosophie 2017) French programme philosophy daily radio France culture and presented adèle van Reeth. In 2017, the show is the podcast of the radio station.

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