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★ Universe - Universe ..



The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies and other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the visible Universe, which is currently estimated at 93 billion light years in diameter. In various hypotheses of the multiverse, and the universe is one of many causally disconnected component parts of the Grand Universe, which itself includes all of space and time and its content, as a consequence, the Universe and the multiverse’ are synonymous in such theories. The earliest cosmological model of the Universe was developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers, and the geocentric, placing the Earth in the centre. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar system. In the development of the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built on the work of Copernicus, and Johannes Keplers laws of planetary motion and Tychos observations. Further monitoring improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the milky Way galaxy, which is one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe. Many stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale, galaxies are distributed evenly and equally in all directions, which means that the universe has no edge, no center. On a smaller scale, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters, which form huge filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century suggested that the universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since then, and currently still expanding at a faster pace. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the Universe. According to this theory, space and time originated together 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago, energy and matter originally present become less dense as the universe expanded. After the initial accelerated expansion of the Universe called the inflationary epoch, about 10 -32 seconds, and the separation of the four known fundamental forces of the Universe gradually cools and continues to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and atoms to form. Dark matter gradually gathered together, forming a foam-like fiber structure and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were gradually drawn into the places where dark matter was most dense, the formation of the first galaxies, stars and still see today. You can see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light years because space itself is expanding, and it is still expanding today. This means that objects that are now to 46.5 billion light years from us, still can be seen in their distant past, because in the past, when their light was emitted, they were much closer to the Ground. By studying the motion of galaxies, it was discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects, stars, galaxies, nebulae and interstellar gas. This invisible matter known as dark matter, dark means that there is a wide range of strong circumstantial evidence that it exists, but we havent detected directly. The ΛCDM model is the most widely accepted model of our Universe. This implies that about 69.2% ± 1.2% of the physical Universe. Stars, planets, gas clouds and is visible only about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.29% of the entire Universe. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the Universe and what, if anything, after the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information to the States will never be available. Some physicists have proposed various hypotheses of the multiverse in which our universe may be only one of many universes that also exist.

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